The Scottish movement occurred in the late 1880’s and 90’s, more than 20 years after Morris had established his first shop in London. The Glasgow School of Art GSA was the centre of the Arts and Crafts movement in Scotland. Four key figures, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Herbert MacNair, Margaret and Frances MacDonald were known as ‘The Four’ who together created the vision which became world famous as the Glasgow Style.
Andy Warhol famously told Art News interviewer Gene Swenson, “The reason I’m painting this way is that I want to be a machine, and I feel that whatever I do and do machine-like is what I want to do.” Warhol was referring to his newfound process of silk-screen printing images repeatedly onto a single canvas. This act of undermining any translation or evidence of the artist’s hand in favor of a mass-produced, machine-like look appealed to Warhol. Once he discovered the process and implications of working with silk screens, the content of Warhol’s output as a painter became inextricably linked to the process by which he created his art.
Warhol’s grid-like paintings of dollar bills from 1962 are his earliest attempts at silk-screen printing, when the artist was still getting to know the process. At that time he used his own drawings as the basis to create the silk-screened print. He reportedly was not entirely happy with the result, calling 129 Die in Jet!, another painting based on a drawing, “smeary.” But Warhol soon learned that it was possible to use photographs as the basis for a silk-screen print, and the resulting image proved much sharper – though not too sharp – and thus to Warhol’s liking.Warhol’s Liz #1 Early Colored Liz, which will be featured in Sotheby’s upcoming Evening sale of Contemporary Art on November 13, illustrates well Warhol’s process as a painter.
Materially, the artwork consists of acrylic paint and silk-screen ink on canvas. We see a flat yellow background surrounding a spotty yet recognizable image of Elizabeth Taylor, the actress and celebrity, who, like Marilyn Monroe and Jackie Kennedy, repeatedly served as Warhol’s subject.Andy Warhol’s Liz #1 Early Colored Liz will be offered at the Contemporary Art Evening sale on 13 November.Here Warhol appropriated a 1950s publicity photo of Taylor as the source material for the silk screen. Warhol worked with professionals to have the photos he chose transferred onto the mesh of a silk screen. When Warhol passed an ink-laden squeegee over the mesh as the silk screen sat atop his canvas, ink would pass through the mesh and impress a print of his image onto the canvas. Areas of the mesh where a layer of glue has been applied – in Warhol’s case, the “negative” space of the photos he selected – keep paint from passing through to the canvas.
Observing the grainier areas of Liz’s hair, it’s clear that Warhol first applied the yellow paint before adding the layer of black ink that comprises her face. Her intense red lips and eye shadow were also applied during separate passes of the squeegee. To Warhol the noticeable “imperfections” – such as the faint areas of Liz’s hair and the way the lipstick bleeds onto her chin – weren’t signs of a poorly pulled silk screen-image but rather welcome indications of how chance influenced his work. As Warhol’s biographers Tony Scherman and David Dalton point out, Warhol “was not after a picture-perfect, sharp-edged result; he wanted the trashy immediacy of a tabloid news photo.”By his use of the silk-screen process mixed with high-key acrylic paint, Warhol imbued Liz #1 Early Colored Liz with a kind of tragic radiance. And by re-using the silk screen of the ’50s publicity photo for other portraits of the film star and tabloid fixation, Warhol investigated through multiplicity the commodification of fame.
Still today Andy Warhol makes the news
QC Godwin-Ternbach Museum Receives Warhol Silkscreens | www.qgazette.com | Queens Gazette: The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts has given the Godwin-Ternbach Museum at Queens College seven color silkscreen prints by the celebrated pop artist.
There are various terms used for what is essentially the same technique. Traditionally the process was called screen printing or silkscreen printing because silk was used in the process prior to the invention of polyester mesh. Currently, synthetic threads are commonly used in the screen printing process. The most popular mesh in general use is made of polyester. There are special-use mesh materials of nylon and stainless steel available to the screen printer. There are also different types of mesh size which will determine the outcome and look of the finished design on the material. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Screen_printing
A bit of fun for the weekend. John Bull printing outfit – For any junior office worker in the 1950s: Did you ever have the John Bull printing outfit ? If you did there were several various versions. They were separated by number, so the John Bull printing outfit no 18 was different to the #30. Generally the larger the number the larger the amount of rubber letters. So if you has #6 you knew that either your parents were poor or they had no confidence that your young business mind wasn’t going to make you the next Donald Trump or Alan Sugar!
Printing techniques have changed a bit from this printing machine but maybe using this as a child got you into silk screen printing. You probably bought it at an art supplies shop or art supply stores. No use for fabric printing, foil printing or printing on glass but great fun for printing at home.
Paolozzi spent much of the 1970s working on abstract art, including screen printing and reliefs. His color schemes were largely monochromatic during this time—a major departure from his previous, colorful work. One formidable product of this stage in Paolozzi’s career was a commission of panels for the ceiling of Cleish Castle in Kinross-shire, Scotland.
Love this blog post 10 Things You Didn’t Know About T-Shirts
1.) Cotton has been grown for over 6,000 years.
2.) The word “t-shirt” first appeared in the Merriam-Webster dictionary in the 1920’s. Two other best-selling books during the same time period were Farewell To Arms and The Great Gatsby.
3.) That’s a lot of dough for some t-shirts!
4.) In 1939 the first promotional t-shirt was printed for the movie “The Wizard of Oz”.
5.) “Absorbent” cotton will retain 24-27 times its own weight in water and is stronger wet than when dry.
6.) There are 35,000 cotton farms in the U.S. and 98% percent of cotton is grown in Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas.
7.) T-Shirts made from recycled cotton prevent over five billion tons of textile waste from entering landfills each year.
8.) Top 5 Cotton Producing Countries (2009)
China: 32 Million Bales
India: 23.5 Million Bales
United States: 12.4 Million Bales
Pakistan: 9.8 Million Bales
Brazil: 5.5 Million Bales
9.) Annual Dollars Generated by Industry
10.) It takes six miles of yarn to make one t-shirt.
http://www.youdesignit.com/information/10-facts-about-t-shirts for some great graphics.
8 Ways Andy Warhol Can Inspire You To Live An Amazing Life
Andy Warhol was born Aug. 6, 1928, meaning he would have been 86 years old were he alive today. Sadly, he died in 1987, at the age of 58, but Warhol had an incredible life that many still seek to emulate. Perhaps known vaguely by some as the artist who created that colorful Marilyn Monroe portrait or the guy who was really into Campbell’s soup, a deeper dive into his particular brand is truly worth it.
Screen print first started with silk screen printing and for silk screen printing you need SILK. The history of silk is fascinating and this website gives loads of details. S – SILK ROAD ENCYCLOPEDIA – Guide on Silk Route Trade & Travel.
It was in China during the Song Dynasty (960–1279 CE) that silk screen printing first appeared and other countries like Japan took the technique further with block printing and paints.
Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press. While this may not sound like a big deal at first, the printing press is often considered as the most important invention in modern times. Think about how important information is today. Without books and computers you wouldn’t be able to learn, to pass on information, or to share scientific discoveries. Prior to Gutenberg inventing the printing press, making a book was a laborious process. It wasn’t that hard to write a letter to one person by hand, but to create thousands of books for many people to read was nearly impossible. Without the printing press we wouldn’t have had the Scientific Revolution or the Renaissance. Our world would be very different.
In 1907, Samuel Simon of Manchester England was awarded a patent for the process of using silk fabric as a printing screen. Using materials other than silk for screen printing has a long history that begins with the ancient art of stenciling used by the Egyptians and Greeks as early as 2500 B.C. A few years after Simon’s patent, John Pilsworth of San Francisco developed a multicolor process of silk screening called screen printing. The term “Serigraphy”, comes from the Latin word “Seri” silk and the Greek word “graphein” to write or draw.